Pest: Major Pests
Native to Asia, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), or HWA, is a small, aphid-like insect that threatens the health and sustainability of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana) in the Eastern United States. HWA is the single greatest threat to hemlock health and sustainability in the eastern U.S. The potential ecological impacts of this exotic pest are comparable to that of Dutch elm disease and chestnut blight. HWA was first reported in the U.S. in 1951 near Richmond, Virginia, and has since spread to 17 states, from Maine to Georgia.
Since its detection in Tennessee in 2002, HWA has spread to 42 counties in East Tennessee and the Cumberland Plateau. On average, HWA has been spreading from east to west at roughly 15 to 20 miles per year. The main vectors that allow hemlock woolly adelgid to spread rapidly are storm winds and migratory birds, as well as “hitchhiking” on mammals and humans. Infested nursery stock can also transport the insect into new areas. Hemlock is not a highly valued timber species but provides invaluable ecological benefits to the forest such as habitat, stream temperature regulation, and stream bank stability. Loss of these values will not only disrupt the delicate natural systems in the forest but also affect aesthetic and recreational benefits.
Due to the near microscopic size of the HWA crawlers (mobile instar phase) and its ease of transportability via birds, mammals, and weather, HWA traps are not effective tools to monitor infestation movement. Traps are, however, useful in research settings and are used often to detect presence and rate of spread. Visual inspection of hemlock trees is the best survey method. Several agencies have established annual survey locations where presence of infestation, health of hemlock trees, and other pertinent data are recorded.
The hemlock woolly adelgid is tiny, less than 1/16-inch long, and varies from dark reddish-brown to purplish-black in color. As it matures, it produces a covering of wool-like wax filaments to protect itself and its eggs from natural enemies and prevent them from drying out. This “wool”, which is its ovisac, is most visible when the adelgid is mature and laying eggs. Ovisacs can be readily observed from late fall to early summer on the underside of the outermost branch tips of hemlock trees. The “wool” has also been described as looking like tiny cotton balls.
A sign of more advanced HWA infestation is discoloration of foliage and thinning in the crown of the tree. This is due to the disruption of nutrient supplies to the hemlock foliage by HWA, and causes the needles to change from deep green to a grayish green and then fall off. However, since other hemlock pests can cause some of these symptoms as well, a positive identification for HWA on the foliage is needed. Once established on a tree, it quickly populates all needles of the tree causing mortality within 3 to 10 years of infestations (4 to 10 years in the insect’s northern range, 3 to 6 years in its southern range).
There are several management options available to both prevent HWA from killing your hemlocks and treating hemlocks after an infestation has been discovered.
Cultural: move bird feeders away from hemlocks, remove isolated infested hemlock trees from your woodlot, do not move hemlock material from an area of infestation (quarantine) to areas that are not infested.
Biological: Natural predators (beetles) that feed on HWA are being released at select sites in Tennessee. Mycotal, an adelgid killing fungus, is currently being tested for a viable biological control option.
Chemical: Several different types of chemical treatments are available. The most common chemical application methods are soil injection and soil drench. Imidacloprid and dinotefuran are the most effective chemical types. Research has proven that chemical treatments can last up to 8 years before a second treatment is needed. Please consult the TDF or your local forestry or tree care professional for more information on chemical management options for HWA.
Insecticidal soaps and horticultural oils: These can be sprayed on hemlocks when the objective is immediate control of insects. If complete coverage is achieved, these agents act by smothering all invertebrates on the tree at the time of treatment. There is no residual effect, so HWA could re-infest the tree immediately. With this method, there is an increased risk of applicator contamination and increased concern with drift, since the product is sprayed on the foliage. This treatment method is appropriate for smaller, more accessible trees that could be treated frequently. It would not be appropriate for treating large or inaccessible trees.
What can you do?
The best thing you can do is to learn to recognize the signs and symptoms of infected hemlocks. Do not move infested hemlock products or materials into areas where no known infestation has been documented. If you think you have found hemlocks infested with HWA, please contact the Tennessee Division of Forestry at 615.837.5432.
The Tennessee Hemlock Conservation Partnership, which encompasses staff from the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Tennessee Division of Forestry, National Park Service, The Nature Conservancy, US Forest Service, University of Tennessee, as well as concerned individuals, have identified Hemlock Conservation Areas (HCAs) on public lands where treatment to save hemlocks will take place over the next several years. The THCP is now accepting donations that will be used to treat priority Hemlock Conservation Areas on state public lands. For more information and to make a donation, you can visit the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Foundation.
Volunteer to treat hemlock trees on public lands please contact Heather Slayton at Protect.TNForests@tn.gov.
TN Wild Side-The Hemlock War